The continent of Africa is a place of natural beauty, dramatic landscapes, rich history and diverse peoples. In addition to being the world's eighth most populous country, the West African nation of Nigeria alone is home to more than one-sixth of the continent's total population.

Of Nigeria's numerous ethnic groups, the Yoruba and Igbo are two of the nation's largest groups. Although they share some similarities, they possess a number of distinct differences that make each unique.

The Igbo people generally reside in southeastern Nigeria, which is commonly referred to as Igboland. Due to economic, social and political unrest, a significant number of Igbo people are also found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Caribbean and many parts of the United States and Europe. While members of the Yoruba ethnic group are primarily found in southwestern Nigeria and all over Benin, Ghana and Togo, there are large concentrated populations in the United States and in the United Kingdom.

In addition to immigrants from Europe, Asia and the Americas, as well as other African nations, Nigeria is home to more than million people from an estimated tribes. Often called one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa, the Yoruba are estimated to have a population of 50 million, and constitute over 20 percent Nigeria's citizenry. Members of the Igbo tribe are believed to make up about 18 percent of the population, boasting more than 27 million people.

Although there are a number of origin stories, according to oral traditions, the Yoruba people are believed to have migrated from the region now known as the Middle East during medieval times.

From oral tradition and analysis of cultural traits and linguistic patterns, the Igbo people are descendants of people from the Sudan and Bantu-speaking peoples from Central and East Africa. While many Igbo members are primarily Christian, specifically Roman Catholic, most Yoruba people are followers of Christianity and Islam, almost equally. Some Yoruba people also adhere to traditional tribal religious beliefs. While the citizens of Nigeria now must abide by federal and state laws, traditional government and politics were extremely different.

Although some Igbo groups had a king called an obi, most traditional Igbo governments were similar to a democratic-republican system. Some groups were ruled by a council of elders, while others were ruled by an assembly of citizens. Yoruba people generally preferred a monarchical government, but also had independent communities where small councils made legislative, judicial and executive decisions.

Monarchical societies were primarily ruled by a king called an oba. Ayisatu J. Taylor is a graduate of Smith College and has been writing for more than six years. She is attending graduate school for a degree in emergency health studies with a concentration on disaster response and recovery management.

Taylor's work on travel, health and gardening can be seen on numerous websites. The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language.

Who would you rather marry - Hausa vs igbo vs Yoruba man 😂 - public interview

See disclaimer. Taylor ; Updated September 29, About the Author. Photo Credits.There has been much speculation about the origins of the Igbo people, as it is unknown how exactly the group came to form. The Igbo language is a part of the Niger-Congo language family. It is divided into numerous regional dialects, and somewhat mutually intelligible with the larger " Igboid " cluster.

In rural Nigeria, Igbo people work mostly as craftsmen, farmers and traders. The most important crop is the yam. Before British colonial rule in the 20th century, the Igbo were a politically fragmented group, with a number of centralized chiefdoms such as NriAro ConfederacyAgbor and Onitsha.

In the wake of decolonisationthe Igbo developed a strong sense of ethnic identity. Large ethnic Igbo populations are found in Cameroon [23] Gabon and Equatorial Guinea[24] as well as outside Africa.

The various Igbo-speaking communities were historically fragmented and decentralised; [25] in the opinion of Chinua AchebeIgbo identity should be placed somewhere between a "tribe" and a "nation". The Igboid languages form a cluster within the Volta—Niger phylum, most likely grouped with Yoruboid and Edoid. Williamson argues that based on this pattern, proto-Igboid migration would have moved down the Niger from a more northern area in the savannah and first settled close to the delta, with a secondary center of Igbo proper more to the north, in the Awka area.

Pottery dated at around BC showing similarities with later Igbo work was found at Nsukka in the s, along with pottery and tools at nearby Ibagwa; the traditions of the Umueri clan have as their source the Anambra valley. In the s the OwerriOkigweOrluAwguUdi and Awka divisions were determined to constitute "an Igbo heartland" from the linguistic and cultural evidence.

Genetic studies have shown the Igbo to cluster most closely with other Niger-Congo-speaking peoples. The Nri people of Igbo land have a creation myth which is one of the many creation myths that exist in various parts of Igbo land. The Nri and Aguleri people are in the territory of the Umueri clan who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Nri influence in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century, [37] and royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in Each king traces his origin back to the founding ancestor, Eri. Each king is a ritual reproduction of Eri.

The initiation rite of a new king shows that the ritual process of becoming Ezenri Nri priest-king follows closely the path traced by the hero in establishing the Nri kingdom. Elochukwu Uzukwu [41]. The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region.

This meant that, while certain Igbo may have lived under different formal administration, all followers of the Igbo religion had to abide by the rules of the faith and obey its representative on earth, the Eze Nri.

Traditional Igbo political organization was based on a quasi-democratic republican system of government. In tight knit communities, this system guaranteed its citizens equality, as opposed to a feudalist system with a king ruling over subjects.

Although title holders were respected because of their accomplishments and capabilities, they were never revered as kings, but often performed special functions given to them by such assemblies.

Igbo people

This way of governing was immensely different from most other communities of Western Africa, and only shared by the Ewe of Ghana. Umunna are a form of patrilineage maintained by the Igbo.It has about 27 million speakers and is made up of over 20 dialects, though dialect levelling appears to be occurring. A standard literary language was developed in based on the Owerri Isuama and Umuahia such as Ohuhu dialects, though it omits the nasalization and aspiration of those varieties.

Related Igboid languages such as Ikaand Ogba are sometimes considered dialects of Igbo. The language was standardized in church usage by the Union Ibo Bibleshortly after completion Thomas John Dennis died in a shipping accident off the Welsh coast, but the Bible manuscript he was working on was reportedly washed ashore and found by a fisherman. Central Igbo, the dialect form gaining widest acceptance, is based on the dialects of two members of the Ezinifite group of Igbo in Central Owerri Province between the towns of Owerri and Umuahia in Eastern Nigeria.

From its proposal as a literary form in by Dr. Ida C. Wardit was gradually accepted by missionaries, writers, and publishers across the region. Standard Igbo aims to cross-pollinate Central Igbo with words from Igbo dialects from outside the "Central" areas, and with the adoption of loan words. Lexical categories in Igbo include nouns, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adjectives, conjunctions, and a single preposition.

Examples from Emenanjo illustrate the range of meaning:. Igbo has an extremely limited number of adjectives in a closed class. Verbs, by far the most prominent category in Igbo, host most of the language's morphology and appear to be the most basic category; many processes can derive new words from verbs, but few can derive verbs from words of other classes. Igbo pronouns are not gendered and the same pronouns are used for male, female and inanimate beings.

Many names in Igbo are actually fusions of older original words and phrases. Words may also take on multiple meanings. This is because printed paper can be first linked to an organic leaf, and then the paper to a book, the book to a school, and so on.

Igbo is a tonal language with two distinctive tones, the high and low. In some cases a third, downstepped high tone is recognized. The language's tone system was given by John Goldsmith as an example of autosegmental phenomena that go beyond the linear model of phonology laid out in The Sound Pattern of English. In many cases, the two or sometimes three tones commonly used in Igbo dictionaries do not help users pronounce words correctly.

This indicates that the Igbo may have several other tones, possibly up to 8 in total. That imperative tone is also used in the second syllable of abuo "two".A history of strife has undoubtedly existed among members of these two large ethnic groups in the country. Perhaps those of us who are not direct partakers are not bothered, feel there is nothing we can do or are benefactors of the tension.

Nigeria has a buoyant youth population. What this also means is that most Nigerians today are 80s and up babies. For those unfamiliar with the problem being discussed; once a look is taken at commentaries on Nigerian blogs or websites, immediately the observer recognizes significant segregation, affinities and revulsions, leading up to stark insults and threats. You cannot avoid the hostilities online. They are loud and appear to increase in pitch daily.

Ethnic tensions have been at a highest in years under the current Nigerian political dispensation. Undeniably, addressing issues of corruption is obstructed due to this accidental or purposeful prevalence of ethnic suspicion and frank tribalism.

In a recent case of grand corruption, the former minister of Aviation, Stella Oduah case, it was clear that Igbos especially defended her of her exposed crimes.

igbo and hausa

In the case of whistleblower, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi of the Central Bank, who was accused of his own mismanagement at the Central bank, it also appears that a significant amount of the support he got was particularly among the Hausas. Can a nation move forward with this type of distraction? Though the differences between these two cases is obvious. One, the Aviation minister, was caught by the media, stealing with hand in pot and was embraced by the government for as long as they could; while the other blew a whistle of billions of dollars being stolen by the government and was immediately fired and had his passport seized, the public reaction to both cases was clearly tinted with ethnic markers.

Similar postures are noticed in the Jonathan Government honoring of Abacha an unquestionable thief. Opinions are allowed and healthy. Blow a whistle, expose a bigger thief and we can decide to pardon you completely or grant you exile-pardon. But I must not impose my opinion on others and use my opinion to obscure justice. Nigerians must strive to come together with positive analysis, honest condemnation and a quest for true justice, else, we the poor million will continue to suffer at the mercy of a handful of wicked, united cabal.

List Of Nigerian Languages

It is noted that the alleged tensions between these two groups especially developed long before most of those active online were born and many do not know or care to know the history of the tensions. This is noted to have followed the Biafra threat of secession; a type of punishment and distrust. But the truth of the matter is far from much of what has triggered and sustained the tensions most prominent between these two groups. The amalgamation of Nigeria in undoubtedly laid an environment for possible crisis, but amalgamations of this nature do not always lead to crisis.

There are similar amalgamations of identically heterogeneous peoples across Africa, as close as neighboring Ghana and Cameroon which also have northern Hausa speaking populations, which do not bear the Nigerian typical conflict hallmarks.

Many historians agree that the British purposefully sowed seeds of tension between the two groups.

Two Is Fighting: Nigeria’s Hausa And Igbo

The history is long and deep. There are also significant events that triggered episodes of beef especially among the political and military elite class. There is the Kaduna Nzeogwu coup and assassination of northern top elite, which was the first post-colonial episode of serious aggravation and has been viewed by some as a major trigger that provoked Hausa-Igbo sentiments.

There are the rampant episodes of pogroms particularly targeted at the Igbo community in the north in which thousands were killed by rampaging northern youth.

But the truth of the matter is, as much as much of the past holds episodes of pain, distrust and betrayal, many of us youth have no choice but to move ahead and put the bitter parts of our past that we possibly have skewed details of behind us.

Today in the media we see so much lies and misrepresentations of events of the day, talk less during those days of paper and verbal media. How many lies have we been told? Take for instance the bane of this article.

Hausa- Igbo. That in itself holds so much lies it is ridiculous. Who are the Hausa and who are the Igbo? Growing up, many of us literally believed Nigeria had only three ethnic groups.

Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. These were the days of WaZoBia.Hey guys! While I was reading, I really wanted to know more about the differences in culture between the three main ethnicities of Nigeria: the Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.

I have attached some basic information about each of the three groups. I know its not the most interesting of stuff, but I find it interesting to think about how these three groups are now supposed to coexist in a unified country. Because of this main authority, the British were able to rule using indirect rule. Essentially, they would have the emir rule for them. Because of this, the north had the least western influence of the three groups and even today the group is more Arab than Western in culture and traditions.

The were considered a very religious people. They believed in reincarnation, spirits, and the power of names. Each name is said to have special meaning and power over a person, and there was a very intricate naming ceremony.

Like many African ethnic groups, the tribe as a community was extremely important concept in daily lives. This system of government in which everyone is sort of held responsible by everyone else meant that the system of indirect rule would not have worked in Yorubaland. The British instead used direct rule, where they sent their own governors in to enforce British law. They were very religious, and believed in spirits, multiple gods, and oracles. Reincarnation was widely accepted.

Of the three groups, the Igbo were the most fragmented before colonization. The Igbo dialects were extremely different from each other from one town to the next, and political structures varied as well. Because of the differences in language and political structure, the British really forced English and Western traditions on this group more than the others to make it easier for themselves.

This resulted in a lot of uprisings from the Igbo people, which were dealt with harshly. Their culture was preserved more, but they ended up not getting the same educational advances, etc as the people in the south. Posted by audreyvorhees on January 25, in Uncategorized. I like your analysis, but disagree that there are no visible anthropological differences between the groups.Call: Email: azresearchconsult gmail.

Sc, M. Ed, M. D in Lagos, Nigeria. Yoruba: Family life is the foundation of Yoruba culture, as I have learned and I have been told and shown. Yoruba families are, like most African families, dominated by the father. The dynamic between love and respect are the differences between the two groups.

The Yoruba kingdom consisted of the Headquarter and number of towns and villages. The Oba and his senior Chief ruled from the headquarters. In those days, it was not customary for the chiefs to sit together with the Oba because of his sacredness.

Thus any decision taken would normally be communicated to him through a messenger. In addition to this, any Oba who wanted to rule autocratically would be forced to commit suicide. Other devices to checkmate the autocratic ruling of an Oba if there was a disagreement between him and the chiefs was neglect of religious ceremonies and other rituals.

Igbo: Family life is also the foundation of Igbo culture. More so than Yoruba culture is the power the father has over the family. I have seen Yoruba families eat from the same plate and children sitting among adults while they speak.

igbo and hausa

Typically fathers are served separate from children, and as children become youths they chose to eat separately from those not in their age group. The contrast is where the yoruba place emphasis on cultural niceties, igbos tend to put practicality about it. For instance. Many of the yoruba children I have met had their parents pick their career and education goal.A history of strife has undoubtedly existed among members of these two large ethnic groups in the country.

Perhaps those of us who are not direct partakers are not bothered, feel there is nothing we can do or are benefactors of the tension. Nigeria has a buoyant youth population. What this also means is that most Nigerians today are 80s and up babies.

For those unfamiliar with the problem being discussed; once a look is taken at commentaries on Nigerian blogs or websites, immediately the observer recognizes significant segregation, affinities and revulsions, leading up to stark insults and threats. You cannot avoid the hostilities online.

They are loud and appear to increase in pitch daily. Ethnic tensions have been at a highest in years under the current Nigerian political dispensation. Undeniably, addressing issues of corruption is obstructed due to this accidental or purposeful prevalence of ethnic suspicion and frank tribalism.

Can a nation move forward with this type of distraction? Though the differences between these two cases is obvious. One, the Aviation minister, was caught by the media, stealing with hand in pot and was embraced by the government for as long as they could; while the other blew a whistle of billions of dollars being stolen by the government and was immediately fired and had his passport seized, the public reaction to both cases was clearly tinted with ethnic markers.

Similar postures are noticed in the Jonathan Government honoring of Abacha an unquestionable thief. Opinions are allowed and healthy. Blow a whistle, expose a bigger thief and we can decide to pardon you completely or grant you exile-pardon.

But I must not impose my opinion on others and use my opinion to obscure justice. Nigerians must strive to come together with positive analysis, honest condemnation and a quest for true justice, else, we the poor million will continue to suffer at the mercy of a handful of wicked, united cabal. It is noted that the alleged tensions between these two groups especially developed long before most of those active online were born and many do not know or care to know the history of the tensions.

This is noted to have followed the Biafra threat of secession; a type of punishment and distrust. But the truth of the matter is far from much of what has triggered and sustained the tensions most prominent between these two groups.

The amalgamation of Nigeria in undoubtedly laid an environment for possible crisis, but amalgamations of this nature do not always lead to crisis. There are similar amalgamations of identically heterogeneous peoples across Africa, as close as neighboring Ghana and Cameroon which also have northern Hausa speaking populations, which do not bear the Nigerian typical conflict hallmarks.

Many historians agree that the British purposefully sowed seeds of tension between the two groups.

igbo and hausa

Replies to “Igbo and hausa”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *